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field background odour should be taken into account when formulating a pest attractant based on plant volatiles
Before that, we showed the tea cicada (Onukii)
The preferred smell of grapes, peaches and tea trees for clean air.
In this study, we prepared three mixtures of similar attraction to the volatile substances of peaches, grapes and tea trees;
These mixtures are composed (Z)-3-
Hexyl acetate ,(E)-ocimene, (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-
Benzoate tribenzene, toluene, and benzyl grease.
Based on these five compounds, we have developed two kinds of trapping agents,P and formula-G.
Specific components in the formula related to tea tree volatile substances
P is formaldehyde, in the formula
G is benzene acetate.
These two compounds play a role in attracting cicadas.
In laboratory analysis, the attraction of these two lure agents to leaf cicadas is greater than that of tea tree volatile substances and has similar attraction.
However, Ye Chan was not attracted by formulaP in the field.
High concentrations of formaldehyde were detected in the background odor of the tea garden.
In laboratory tests, toluene at the site concentration was attractive to leaf cicadas.
Our results show that the background smell on site can interfere with the point-
When the ingredients of the lure overlap to release the lure, the successful lure must be different from the scene background odor. Tea Tree (cv.
Clone Longjing 43 \')Peach plants (cv. ‘Hongtiantao’ (Rosaceae))
Grape plants (cv. ‘Kyoho’ (Vitaceae))
And Ye Chan ()
As mentioned earlier, used in this study.
Test compounds ()were high-
Grade of purity and from Sigma-Aldrich (China)
In addition to DMNT, this is obtained through custom synthesis.
All compounds dissolve different concentrations of Y-in liquid paraffin-
Test tube test and wind tunnel biological test for volatile analysis, or methanol.
Pure synthetic compounds were used in the field capture test.
As mentioned earlier, plant odor sources have been prepared.
As shown, the synthetic compound in the liquid paraffin is mixed, the 20 μ l solution of the synthetic compound or the 20 μ l liquid paraffin (clean air)
Loaded on each rubber diaphragm (8u2009mm O. D. Sigma-Aldrich, China).
According to the volatile substances of the three plants, the total load of the synthetic compounds is 0. 1–0.
6 ng intervals per rubber. The Y-
As mentioned earlier, the tube hardware and biometrics program.
The ratio of male to female cicadas tested was random. The Y-
After testing 10 people, the test tube and source of smell were replaced.
Biological analysis was conducted between 15: 00 and 19: 00.
On a certain day, about 30 individuals of cicadas were tested and each insect was used only once.
In order to identify a mixture that is attractive to leaf cicadas in volatile substances in peaches, grapes and tea trees, 11 mixtures ()
The compounds were tested.
There are five common compounds of volatile substances in tea trees, peaches and grapes (()-3-
Hexyl acetate ,()-
Ocimene, linalool, DMNT and (,)-α-farnesene)
Among the three plant volatile mixtures, the tea tree volatile mixture is the simplest.
The attractive mixture of tea tree volatile substances was first identified, and the starting point was a mixture of five common compounds.
Each mixed and clean air or plant volatile substance is provided as an option for the leaf cicada.
Next, according to the composition of volatile substances in tea trees, emissions (Z)-3-
Hexyl acetate, DMNT and ()-
Adjust ocimene in mixture 6 and 10 to produce two lure agents (formula-P and formula-G). In formula-
P, relative ratio (Z)-3-
Hexyl acetate ,()-
Ocimene, DMNT and toluene were 1, respectively. 5:1. 9:1. 0:8.
1, the total load of synthetic compounds is 0. 2u2009mg. In formula-
G, relative ratio (Z)-3-
Hexyl acetate ,()-
Ocimene, DMNT and benzene acetate were 10, respectively. 0:12. 5:6. 7:1.
0, the total load of synthetic compounds is 0. 6u2009mg.
In order to verify their attractiveness to the leaf cicada, each attraction was compared with the tea tree volatile substance.
Finally, four different concentrations of toluene in the air are discussed (790. 1, 20. 1, 3. 4 and 0. 4u2009ng L)
Compared to clean air or formulaP.
In this experiment, the source of odor was replaced after testing five people.
In general, in Y-tube bioassays.
Each treatment was tested repeatedly for 3-4 days on about 100 adult cicadas. All Y-
The test tube was completed within 80 days.
The leaf cicada attraction was tested in a wind tunnel with a polycarbonate flight segment (
25 u2009 × u2009 Natural 20 u2009 × u2009 300)
Consists of six detachable segments, each of which is 50 cm long ().
The adjacent segments can be separated by inserting two baffles.
4 tea seedlings (
Same as used in Y-tube test)
In the center of each section is a flower foam soaked with water.
The air was blown into the tunnel by a mini fan (
LSF95 high 15 cm in China, 12 cm wide)
Through three metal screens (
100 mesh, 5 cm distance between screens)and a box (25u2009×u200920u2009×u20095u2009cm)
Filled with activated carbon.
The air leaving the tunnel runs through a 100-
Before being released back to the room, the mesh metal screen and a box full of activated carbon.
Wind speed is 20 cms s by thermal-calibration
Film wind speed meter (
AR866 Dongguan Technology Co. , Ltd. Ltd.
6 mg synthetic formula in wind tunnel experiment-
Synthetic formula P or 2 mg
G in liquid paraffin is loaded onto four rubber partitions that are screwed on a rope about 12 cm long with a paper clip.
The rope hangs at the headwind end of the tunnel flight. There was a 4-
The upper rubber interval and the cm distance between the top of the wind tunnel.
In the blank control, the rubber partition was loaded with liquid paraffin.
At about 200 lux, the wind tunnel spread from above.
The room is kept at 20 ± 2 °c, 70-80% R. H.
Before the test, the flight part was washed with ethanol and maintained for 8 km/h in a ventilated environment.
The leaf cicada is the same as the leaf cicada used in Y-tube test.
In a 5-
Ml centrifuge tube, turn to the downwind end of the wind tunnel at 16: 00.
All the lights in the wind tunnel room were turned off 2 km/h after the leaf cicada was released. After 6u2009h (
00: 00 on the 2 th)
Insert the baffle between The Wind Cave section and count the number of leaf cicadas in each section.
A total of 200 leaf cicadas were tested five times per treatment.
Test different treatments for 3 consecutive days and complete all wind tunnel tests within 20 days.
In order to test the attractiveness of these two formulas to the leaf cicada, field tests were conducted in two tea gardens in October: 300-
Tea garden of tea experimental plantation of Tea Research Institute (
Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Hangzhou, China)
2014 and 2015; and a 200-
Hectares of tea garden in Mingshan Tea Factory (Shaoxing, China)in 2015.
Chai Tian Village, Japan)at 13:00u2009h.
After the collection is completed, all samples will be taken to the laboratory for analysis immediately.
All the field samples were added with a 10-acid acetate of 5 ng (
, And through coupled thermal analysis (TD;
Mark TD100, UK)GC-MS (GCMS-
QP2010 Shimizu, Japan).
All statistical tests are performed using SAS v8. 2 (
Cary SAS Institute, North Carolina, USA).
For the olfactory instrument test, there is no zero hypothesis that any olfactory instrument arm is preferred (
Response equal to 50: 50
Analysis with x-goodnessof-
The fitting test after continuity was corrected with yates correction factor.
Difference in the amount of volatile compounds emitted by odor sources in Y-
Determine test tubes using two methodssample t-test for means.
The average percentage of leaf cicadas in different parts of wind tunnel was analyzed with one-oneway ANOVA.
In the field trapping test, the average number of leaf cicadas treated differently before and after trapping for 3, 6 and 8 days was analyzed with one-oneway ANOVA.
Multiple range tests for Tukey separate the mean (